Syrian Civil War Fast Facts

When the civil battle started in 2011, there have been 4 major factions of preventing teams all through the nation: Kurdish forces, ISIS, different opposition (resembling Jaish al Fateh, an alliance between the Nusra Entrance and Ahrar-al-Sham) and the Assad regime. However as ISIS loses management of most of its territory, combatants are actually freer to assault one another.

Timeline

March 2011 – Violence flares in Daraa after a gaggle of teenagers and youngsters are arrested for writing political graffiti. Dozens of individuals are killed when safety forces crack down on demonstrations.

March 24, 2011 – In response to persevering with protests, the Syrian authorities broadcasts a number of plans to appease residents. State workers will obtain a direct wage enhance. The federal government additionally plans to review lifting Syria’s lengthy standing emergency regulation and the licensing of latest political events.

March 30, 2011 – Assad addresses the nation in a 45-minute televised speech. He acknowledges that the federal government has not met the individuals’s wants, however he doesn’t provide any concrete adjustments. The state of emergency stays in impact.

April 21, 2011 – Assad lifts the nation’s 48-year-old state of emergency. He additionally abolishes the Greater State Safety Court docket and points a decree “regulating the suitable to peaceable protest, as one of many primary human rights assured by the Syrian Structure.”

Might 18, 2011 – The US imposes sanctions in opposition to Assad and 6 different senior Syrian officers. The Treasury Division particulars the sanctions by saying, “On account of this motion, any property in america or within the possession or management of US individuals during which the people listed within the Annex have an curiosity is blocked, and US individuals are usually prohibited from partaking in transactions with them.”

August 18, 2011 – The US imposes new financial sanctions on Syria, freezing Syrian authorities belongings within the US, barring People from making new investments within the nation and prohibiting any US transactions regarding Syrian petroleum merchandise, amongst different issues.

September 2, 2011 – The European Union bans the import of Syrian oil.

September 23, 2011 – The EU imposes further sanctions in opposition to Syria, attributable to “the persevering with brutal marketing campaign” by the federal government in opposition to its personal individuals.

October 2, 2011 – A brand new alignment of Syrian opposition teams establishes the Syrian Nationwide Council, a framework via which to finish Assad’s authorities and set up a democratic system.

October 4, 2011 – Russia and China veto a UN Safety Council decision that might name for a direct halt to the crackdown in Syria in opposition to opponents of Assad. 9 of the 15-member council nations, together with america, voted in favor of adopting the decision.

November 12, 2011 – The Arab League suspends Syria’s membership, efficient November 16, 2011.

November 27, 2011 – Overseas ministers from 19 Arab League nations vote to impose financial sanctions in opposition to the Syrian regime for its half in a bloody crackdown on civilian demonstrators.

November 30, 2011 – Turkey broadcasts a collection of measures, together with monetary sanctions, in opposition to Syria.

December 19, 2011 – Syria indicators an Arab League proposal geared toward ending violence between authorities forces and protesters.

January 28, 2012 – The Arab League suspends its mission in Syria as violence there continues.

February 2, 2012 – A UN Safety Council assembly ends with no settlement on a draft decision meant to strain Syria to finish its crackdown on anti-government demonstrators.

February 4, 2012 – A UN Safety Council decision condemning Syria will not be adopted after Russia and China vote in opposition to it.

February 6, 2012 – The US closes its embassy in Damascus and remembers its diplomats.

February 7, 2012 – The Gulf Cooperation Council broadcasts its member states are pulling their ambassadors from Damascus and expelling the Syrian ambassadors of their nations.

February 16, 2012 – The United Nations Normal Meeting passes a nonbinding decision endorsing the Arab League plan for Assad to step down. The vote was 137 in favor and 12 in opposition to, with 17 abstentions.
February 26, 2012 – Syrians vote on a constitutional referendum in polling facilities throughout the nation. Virtually 90% of voters approve the adjustments to the structure, which embody the potential of a multi-party system.
March 13, 2012 – Kofi Annan, the UN particular envoy to Syria, meets in Turkey with authorities officers and Syrian opposition members. In a go to to Syria over the weekend, he requires a ceasefire, the discharge of detainees and permitting unfettered entry to aid companies to ship much-needed assist.

March 15, 2012 – The Gulf Cooperation Council broadcasts that the six member nations will shut their Syrian embassies and calls on the worldwide group “to cease what’s going on in Syria.”

March 27, 2012 – The Syrian authorities accepts Annan’s plan to finish violence. The proposal seeks to cease the violence, give entry to humanitarian companies, launch detainees and begin a political dialogue to handle the considerations of the Syrian individuals.

April 1, 2012 – At a convention in Istanbul, the worldwide group Associates of the Syrian Individuals formally acknowledges the Syrian Nationwide Council as a official consultant of the Syrian individuals.

July 30, 2012 – The Syrian Cost d’Affaires in London, Khaled al-Ayoubi, resigns, stating he’s “now not prepared to symbolize a regime that has dedicated such violent and oppressive acts in opposition to its personal individuals.”

August 2, 2012 – UN Secretary Normal Ban Ki-moon broadcasts that Annan won’t renew his mandate when it expires on the finish of August.

August 6, 2012 – Syrian Prime Minister Riyad Hijab’s resignation from workplace and defection from Assad’s regime is learn on Al Jazeera by his spokesman Muhammad el-Etri. Hijab and his household are mentioned to have left Syria in a single day, arriving in Jordan. Hijab is the highest-profile official to defect.

August 9, 2012 – Syrian tv reviews that Assad has appointed Well being Minister Wael al-Halki as the brand new prime minister.

October 3, 2012 – 5 individuals are killed by Syrian shelling within the Turkish border city of Akcakale. In response, Turkey fires on Syrian targets and its parliament authorizes a decision giving the federal government permission to deploy its troopers to international nations.

November 11, 2012 – Israel fires warning photographs towards Syria after a mortar shell hits an Israeli navy put up. It’s the first time Israel has fired on Syria throughout the Golan Heights because the 1973 Yom Kippur Warfare.

November 11, 2012 – Syrian opposition factions formally conform to unite because the Nationwide Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.

November 13, 2012 – Sheikh Ahmed Moaz al-Khatib is elected chief of the Syrian opposition collective, the Nationwide Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.

January 6, 2013 – Assad broadcasts he won’t step down and that his imaginative and prescient of Syria’s future features a new structure and an finish to help for the opposition. The opposition refuses to work with Assad’s authorities.

March 19, 2013 – The Nationwide Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces elects Ghassan Hitto as its prime minister. Although born in Damascus, Hitto has spent a lot of his life in america, and holds twin US and Syrian citizenship.

April 25, 2013 – US Secretary of Protection Chuck Hagel broadcasts america has proof that the chemical weapon sarin has been utilized in Syria on a small scale.

Might 27, 2013 – EU nations finish the arms embargo in opposition to the Syrian rebels.

Might 27, 2013 – US Senator John McCain visits rebels in Syria. It’s reported that he’s the very best rating US official to go to because the starting of the battle.
June 13, 2013 – US President Barack Obama says that Syria has crossed a “purple line” with its use of chemical weapons in opposition to rebels. His administration signifies that it will likely be stepping up its help of the rebels, who’ve been calling for america and others to supply arms wanted to battle Assad’s forces.

July 6, 2013 – Ahmad Assi Jarba is elected the brand new chief of the Syrian Nationwide Coalition.

August 18, 2013 – A group of UN weapons inspectors arrives in Syria to start an investigation into whether or not chemical weapons have been used through the civil battle.
August 22, 2013 – The United Nations and america name for a direct investigation of Syrian activists’ claims that the Assad authorities used chemical weapons in an assault on civilians on August 21. Anti-regime activist teams in Syria say greater than 1,300 individuals had been killed within the assault outdoors Damascus, a lot of them ladies and youngsters.

August 24, 2013 – Medical charity Medical doctors With out Borders broadcasts that three hospitals close to Damascus handled greater than 3,000 sufferers struggling “neurotoxic signs” on August 21. Reportedly, 355 of the sufferers died.

August 26, 2013 – UN inspectors attain the positioning of a reported chemical assault in Moadamiyet al-Sham, close to Damascus. En path to the positioning, the group’s convoy is hit by sniper fireplace. Nobody is injured.

August 29, 2013 – The UK’s Parliament votes in opposition to any navy motion in Syria.

August 30, 2013 – US Secretary of State John Kerry says that US intelligence data has discovered that 1,429 individuals had been killed in final week’s chemical weapons assault in Syria, together with at the very least 426 kids.
September 9, 2013 – Syria agrees to a Russian proposal to surrender management of its chemical weapons.
September 10, 2013 – In a speech, Obama says he won’t “put American boots on the bottom in Syria,” however doesn’t rule out different navy choices.
September 14, 2013 – The US and Russia conform to a plan to remove chemical weapons in Syria.
September 16, 2013 – The United Nations releases a report from chemical weapons inspectors who investigated the August 21 incident. Inspectors say there’s “clear and convincing proof” that sarin was used.
September 20, 2013 – Syria releases an preliminary report on its chemical weapons program.

September 27, 2013 – The UN Safety Council passes a decision requiring Syria to remove its arsenal of chemical weapons. Assad says he’ll abide by the decision.

September 30, 2013 – On the UN Normal Meeting in New York, Syrian Overseas Minister Walid al-Moualem says that Syria will not be engaged in a civil battle, however a battle on terror.
October 6, 2013 – Syria begins dismantling its chemical weapons program, together with the destruction of missile warheads and aerial bombs.

October 31, 2013 – The Group for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons broadcasts that Syria has destroyed all its declared chemical weapons manufacturing services.

November 25, 2013 – The United Nations broadcasts that beginning January 22 in Geneva, Switzerland, the Syrian authorities and an unknown variety of opposition teams will meet at a “Geneva II” convention meant to dealer an finish to the Syrian civil battle.

December 2, 2013 – UN Excessive Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay says {that a} UN fact-finding group has discovered “huge proof” that the very best ranges of the Syrian authorities are answerable for battle crimes.

January 20, 2014 – The Syria Nationwide Coalition broadcasts it will not take part within the Geneva II talks until the United Nations rescinds its shock invitation to Iran or Iran agrees to sure situations. The United Nations later rescinds Iran’s invitation.
February 13, 2014 – The Group for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons tells CNN that Syria has shipped out 11% of its chemical weapons stockpile, falling far in need of the February 5 deadline to have all such arms faraway from the nation.
February 15, 2014 – A second spherical of peace talks ends in Geneva, Switzerland, with little progress in ending Syria’s civil battle.
February 23, 2014 – The UN Safety Council unanimously passes a decision boosting entry to humanitarian assist in Syria.

June 3, 2014 – Assad is re-elected, reportedly receiving 88.7% of the vote within the nation’s first election since civil battle broke out in 2011.

September 22-23, 2014 – The US and allies launch airstrikes in opposition to ISIS targets in Syria, specializing in town of Raqqa.
September 14-15, 2015 – A Pentagon spokesperson says the Russian navy seems to be trying to arrange a ahead working base in western Syria, within the space across the port metropolis of Latakia. Russian President Vladimir Putin says that Russia is supporting the Syrian authorities in its struggle in opposition to ISIS.
October 30, 2015 – US White Home spokesman Josh Earnest says that the US will probably be deploying “lower than 50” Particular Operations forces, who will probably be despatched to Kurdish-controlled territory in northern Syria. The American troops will assist native Kurdish and Arab forces preventing ISIS with logistics and are planning to bolster their efforts.
February 26, 2016 – A short lived cessation of hostilities goes into impact. The truce requires the Syrian regime and rebels to provide aid organizations entry to disputed territories to allow them to help civilians.
March 15, 2016 – Russia begins withdrawing its forces from Syria. A spokeswoman for Assad tells CNN that the Russian marketing campaign is winding down after attaining its purpose of serving to Syrian troops take again territory claimed by terrorists.
September 15, 2016 – No less than 23 individuals, together with 9 kids, are killed throughout airstrikes in Syria, with america and Russia accusing one another of violating the ceasefire in impact since September 12.
September 17, 2016 – US-led coalition airstrikes close to Deir Ezzor Airport meant to focus on ISIS as an alternative kill 62 Syrian troopers.
September 20, 2016 – An assist convoy and warehouse of the Syrian Arab Pink Crescent are bombed; nobody claims accountability. The strike prompts the UN to halt assist operations in Syria.
September 23-25, 2016 – About 200 airstrikes hit Aleppo through the weekend, with one activist telling CNN it’s a stage of bombing they haven’t seen earlier than.
December 13, 2016 – As authorities forces take management of most of Aleppo from insurgent teams, Turkey and Russia dealer a ceasefire for jap Aleppo in order that civilians may be evacuated. The UN Safety Council holds an emergency session amid reviews of mounting civilian deaths and extrajudicial killings. The ceasefire collapses lower than a day after it’s applied.
December 22, 2016 – Syria’s state-run media broadcasts authorities forces have taken full management of Aleppo, ending greater than 4 years of insurgent rule there.
April 4, 2017 – Dozens of civilians are reportedly killed in a suspected chemical assault within the rebel-held city of Khan Sheikhoun. The Russian Protection Ministry claims that fuel was launched when Syrian forces bombed a chemical munitions depot operated by terrorists. Activists, nevertheless, say that Syrians carried out a focused chemical assault.
April 6, 2017 – The US launches a navy strike on a Syrian authorities airbase in response to the chemical weapon assault on civilians. On US President Donald Trump’s orders, US warships launch 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles on the airbase which was house to the warplanes that carried out the chemical assaults.

July 7, 2017 – Trump and Putin attain an settlement on curbing violence in southwest Syria throughout their assembly on the G20 in Hamburg, Germany. The ceasefire will take impact within the de-escalation zone starting at midday Damascus time on July 9.

October 17, 2017 – ISIS loses management of its self-declared capital, Raqqa. US-backed forces preventing in Raqqa say “main navy operations” have ended, although there are nonetheless pockets of resistance within the metropolis.
October 26, 2017 – A joint report from the United Nations and worldwide chemical weapons inspectors finds that the Assad regime was answerable for the April 2017 sarin assault that killed greater than 80 individuals. Syria has repeatedly denied it had something to do with the assault and likewise denies it has any chemical weapons.
February 24, 2018 – The UN Safety Council unanimously approves a 30-day ceasefire decision in Syria, although it’s unclear when the ceasefire is supposed to begin, or how it will likely be enforced.
February 27, 2018 – Inside minutes of when a five-hour “humanitarian pause” ordered by Putin — from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. — is supposed to begin, activists on the bottom report shelling and artillery fireplace from pro-regime positions, killing at the very least one individual within the rebel-held enclave of Jap Ghouta.
March 6, 2018 – Greater than 1,000 kids have been killed or injured this 12 months throughout Syria, UNICEF regional communications chief Juliette Touma tells CNN. In all, 342 kids had been killed and 803 had been injured in Syria within the first two months of 2018, Touma says, citing a number of sources.
April 7, 2018 – Helicopters drop barrel bombs stuffed with poisonous fuel on the final rebel-held city in Jap Ghouta, activist teams say. The World Well being Group later says that as many as 500 individuals could have been affected by the assault.
April 14, 2018 – The US, France and the UK launch airstrikes on Syria in response to the chemical weapons assault in Jap Ghouta per week earlier.
July 27, 2018 – A UN envoy says the UN has verified 7,000 instances of kids both killed or maimed in Syria’s seven-year battle, however says unverified reviews places the quantity “approach past 20,000.”
September 17, 2018 – Russia and Turkey announce they’ve agreed to create a demilitarized zone in Syria’s Idlib province, doubtlessly thwarting a large-scale navy operation and impending humanitarian catastrophe within the nation’s final insurgent stronghold. The zone, which will probably be patrolled by Turkish and Russian navy models, will develop into operational from October 15.
December 19, 2018 – Trump tweets, “We now have defeated ISIS in Syria, my solely cause for being there through the Trump Presidency.” A US protection official and an administration official inform CNN that planning for the “full” and “fast” withdrawal of US navy from Syria is already underway.
March 23, 2019 – Kurdish forces announce they’ve captured the jap Syrian pocket of Baghouz, the final populated space underneath ISIS rule.
October 9, 2019 – Turkey launches a navy offensive into northeastern Syria, simply days after the Trump administration introduced that US troops would go away the border space. Erdogan’s “Operation Peace Spring” is an effort to drive away Kurdish forces from the border, and use the realm to resettle round two million Syrian refugees.
March 5, 2020 – Turkey and Russia announce a ceasefire in Idlib, Syria’s final opposition enclave, agreeing to determine a safety hall with joint patrols.

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